<hero title="Fundamentalism & Totalitarianism Wiki" description="We are a group of students in Norway who are going to create a wikia about fundamentalism and Totalitarianism. " imagename="" cropposition=""></hero>Welcome to the Fundamentalism & Totalitarianism Wiki Edit
We have created this wiki page about fundamentalism and totalitarianism.
We have chosen to account for both fundamentalism and totalitarianism, as well as we wish to write some examples of both of the terms.
Fundamentalism is an attitude where your meaning is right, and everyone is supposed to have the same meaning as you. When you are a fundamentalist, you try to make everyone think the same as you.
Ideology and forms may vary, but there are some commonalities between fundamentalists: Groups who ascribe sacred writings of great importance, like Jews, Christians and Muslims, employs its own principles of scripture interpretation and argue and take action on the basis of these interpretations.
An important goal is to clean or reform religion to bring out the original or authentic message, so the group defines this.
Fundamentalist groups are evangelizing and doing today extensive use of new media technology to spread the message. Secular politics, which juxtaposes the group ideology with other religions of beliefs, are not accepted.
Combating ideological and moral infection has an important place and involves confrontation with fellow believers of other views with non-believers, or with members of other religions.
The match can be linked to conquest or defense of a geographic area – known among Jewish activists, militant Sikhs in India that requires a separate Kalistan and among Muslim minority groups who are fighting for the establishment of a worldwide caliphate.
Fundamentalism is a broad term, and it can be appropriate to separate between groups who see moral rearmament and religious conversion as necessary prerequisites for gradual changes in society on the one hand, and extremist groups that legitimizes violence to achieve political-religious goals on the other.
Examples of fundamentalism Edit
Christian Fundamentalism Edit
Christian fundamentalism is a conservative movement within American Protestantism that aims to uphold traditional Christian beliefs in the face of many modernist challenges. Christian Fundamentalism arose out of the late 19th and early 20th century conflicts with mainline Protestant churches over modernist challenges, including biblical criticism and interpretation.
Jewish fundamentalism Edit
Jewish fundamentalism can be defined as that attitude in which all notions of historical development are rejected. For Jewish fundamentalists there can be no acknowledgement of any human element in the Bible as understood by the rabbinic tradition.
Islamic Fundamentalism Edit
Islamic fundamentalism is a broad term that refers to the philosophical or theological approach of certain groups within the Islamic tradition who hold that the Qur'an is the inerrant and literal word of God, and that Muslims are required to strictly adhere to the religious practices and moral codes found there.
Hindu fundamentalism Edit
Hindu fundamentalism in India has been influenced more by nationalism than by religion, in part because Hinduism does not have a specific sacred text to which conformity can be demanded. Moreover, conformity to a religious code has never been of particular importance to Hindu groups such as the Bharatiya Janat Party (BJP). For the members of such groups,..
Buddhist fundamentalism Edit
has also targeted other religious and ethnic groups, such as that in Burma. As a Buddhist dominated nation, Burma has seen recent tensions between Muslim minorities and the Buddhist majority, especially during the 2013 Burma anti-Muslim riots, alleged to have been instigated by hardliner groups such as the 969 Movement.
Non- religious Edit
Some refer to any literal-minded or intolerant philosophy with pretense of being the sole source of objective truth, as fundamentalist, regardless of whether it is called a religion. The idea of non-religious fundamentalism almost always expands the definition of "fundamentalism" along the lines of criticisms. It represents an idea of purity, and is self-applied as a rather counter-cultural fidelity to a simple principle, as in economic fundamentalism.
A totalitarian state and totalitarianism is the designation for a political system, where the government in theory wishes controls all aspects of both the private and the public life of a society, a country or a state. Totalitarianism is therefore the opposite of anarchism, which is a political philosophy or a self-governed state, group or country, without a government, laws and rules what so ever.
Full totalitarianism is hardly possible, due to the fact that a totalitarian regime demands a large control apparatus, which is needed to have total authority over a society. Therefore, totalitarianism is a more theoretical philosophy than an existing one. Even so, several regimes, societies and states have still been defined as totalitarian or aspiring towards totalitarianism.
Totalitarian regimes have existed for decades and were introduced in the 1920s by the Nazi Carl Schmitt and Italian fascists. Since then, the term has mostly been used to describe regimes during the Second World War, such as Germany, ruled by Adolf Hitler or Soviet union ruled by Josef Stalin.
Today, the totalitarian philosophy is less prevalent, but totalitarian regimes still exists, mostly in the post-war regimes. Causes of totalitarianism are considered to be the growth of militant and intolerant ideologies, such as for example communism. Another considered cause is the fact that many historical leaders, such as Adolf Hitler and Josef Stalin, that both are considered totalitarists, may inspire governments and leaders today.
Examples of totalitarianism Edit
Now that we know the meaning of the term totalitarianism, it is important that we also look at some examples of the usage of the term to get a complete overview. Totalitarianism has been presented in different movements throughout history. The text will enlighten were the concept of totalitarianism has or are occurring.
Soviet Union ruled by Josef Stalin Edit
When Russia earlier was called the Soviet Union, the country was ruled with a totalitarian regime. In the ending the Civil War in 1922, Joseph Stalin took over the leadership of the Soviet Union. The government was based on a one-party-rule of the Communist Party, which meaning that there were no other ruling parties in the country. Stalin executed everyone who did not want to follow the communist way of life, and at one point the average of executions a day were over thousands.
Italy ruled by Benito Mussolini Edit
Benito Mussolini was first the leading member of the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) in 1912. Mussolini was expelled from the PSI due to his opposition to the party's stance on neutrality in World War I. Later on, he started a fascist movement and 1922 he became the youngest prime minister in the Italian history. He transformed the nation in to a one-party-dictatorship. Within five years, he had gotten dictatorial authority by both legal and extraordinary means, in the hope to create a totalitarian state.
Germany ruled by Adolf Hitler Edit
Adolf Hitler, in his reign in Germany, he tried to employ totalitarianism. This was to achieve his goal of the state an obedient nation. There were many characteristics of a Totalitarian state at this time. The Government ran and censored the media. All communication was censored, which means that they removed the freedom of speech. Even though the use of propaganda was highly effective in the Nazi Germany, not everyone was susceptible to it. Because of these people, Hitler established the secret police. Their job was to find the people who were against the state. When they were found, they were often publicy humiliated or even tortured.
North Korea ruled by Kim Jong-un Edit
In North Korea is a country ruled based on the concept of self-reliance and a classless society. However, does not seem to be much classless at all and many people is extremely poor. Kim Jong-un now rules North Korea in a totalitarian regime. The state stands for systematic abuses of the human rights. There are reports on torture, public executions, slave labor, and forced abortions and infanticides in prison camps have emerged.
China ruled by Mao Zedong Edit
Mao Zedong became China’s leader in 1949 and established a totalitarian regime. He based the country on a one-party-dictatorship, the Communist Party of China (CPC). Violence was means that was often used in Zedong’s reign, and many people were very poor at this time. All though Mao Zedong is considered to being responsible for tens of millions deaths, he is considered, even after his death, a national hero.
There may be divided meanings on whether religion can be totalitarian or not. It may not be the religion itself that is totalitarian, but in the country where there are no separation between state and religion. A good example on this kind of country is Saudi Arabia. Here is the state’s rules based on the religion Islam, the sharia law. The country is often considered to be very strict. For example if a person is homosexual, they are often sentenced to death. Conversion is something that is very unacceptable and sentenced to death is always the outcome. This is what characterize a totalitarian regime and in this case, it is the religion of Islam that are used as a basis for the governance for the country.
These are the sources we have used. We have used several sources stating the same facts, to make sure our sources are reliable.